Optimization of ises for simultaneous nh4+, no3 and no2 monitoring in synthetic wastewater using solver

Natalija Velic1, Olivera Galovic2, Milan Sak-Bosnar2, Tonci Rezic3, Bo idar antek3, Ana Stanic2

1 Faculty of Food Technology, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, F. Kuhaca 18, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
2 Department of Chemistry, J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Cara Hadrijana 8A, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
3 Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia


The adaptation of commercially available ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for use in wastewater matrices was demonstrated using multivariate analysis and optimization with the Microsoft Excel Solver tool. The electrodes were characterized in pure analyte solutions, and their parameters were estimated using multivariate analysis and Solver optimization. The ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite ions were measured in model systems that were designed to simulate wastewater. The accuracy of the measurements (95.3% - 101.0%) was satisfactory for the determination of ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite in complex matrices. The adapted ISEs were then successfully used for bioprocess (synthetic wastewater treatment) dynamics and efficiency studies in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB) by monitoring the concentrations of the substrates and intermediates in the samples collected from the bioreactor. The simultaneous determination of ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite in the samples through the use of adapted ISEs considerably shortened the time required for ion determination.


ammonium; ion-selective electrodes; nitrate; nitrite; wastewater

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