Handbook of heterogeneous catalysis - second, completely revised and enlarged edition - volume 7

Gerhard Ertl, Helmuth Kn zinger, Ferdi Sch th, Jens Weitkamp


Abstract


The seventh volume of the Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis deals with Organic Reactions and it is organized in 17 sub-chapters. The sub-chapter Aromatization of Light Alkanes briefly reviews the relevant reactions of aromatization of light alkanes in the range C3-C8 with focusing on Ga/HZSM-5 and Pt/KL catalysts. Their synthesis and mechanisms proposed for the reactions occurring in the case of each catalyst are also presented. Finally, recent developments regarding industrial applications are illustrated, as well. The chemistry of the Opening of Aromatics is quite complex but it can be reduced at two main steps; hydrogenation of the aromatic ring to cycloalkanes followed by hydrodecyclization reaction. Due to the fact that ring hydrogenation is a fairly advanced sub-field of heterogeneous catalysis, this sub-chapter is focused on the hydrodecyclization reactions. The relevant mechanisms of cycloakane hydrodecyclization are discussed. This will form the basis for reviewing the recent literature on the ring opening of (i) multi-ring (mainly bicyclic) aromatics in diesel and jet fuels, (ii) one-ring aromatics in gasoline without degradation of carbon number and (iii) one-ring aromatics occurring in pyrolysis gasoline followed by hydrocracking into a mixture of ethane, propane and n-butane which is an excellent synthetic feedstock to steam crackers. The alkylation of aromatic compounds is widely used in the large scale synthesis of petrochemicals and in a great variety of fine chemicals and intermediates processes, which is the topic of the third sub-chapter, Alkylation of Aromatics. General mechanistic and kinetic principles of the alkylation of mononuclear alkylbenzenes are ...

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